http://www.Wikipedia.org.html is a Wiki, which means that anyone can easily edit any Wiki link and save those changes immediately to that page. After your first edit you are a Wikipedia editor! To request a change to a protected page, you may use any Wiki link.

## Introduction

You can also click on the "'''Discussion'''" tab to see the corresponding Wiki link, which contains comments about the page from other Wikipedia users. Click on the "'''+'''" tab to add a new section, or edit the page in the same way as an article page.

You should remember to Wiki link on Wiki link and some special-purpose Wiki link, but you should not sign edits you make to regular articles. In Wiki link, the MediaWiki software keeps track of which user makes each change.

## Tips on editing Wikipedia articles

Cite your sources, so others can check and extend your work. Most Wikipedia articles currently lack good references, and this continues to be Wikipedia's single greatest criticism—that it is not a reliable source. Please help by researching online and print resources to find references for the article you are working on, then Wiki link in proper form, and consider in-text citation for contentious facts. There is no consensus on the best way to do this, but anything is better than nothing.

## Minor edits

When editing an article page on this site, a Wiki link user can mark that edit as being "minor". Minor edits generally mean spelling corrections, formatting, and minor rearrangement of text. It is possible to hide minor edits when viewing the Wiki link. Marking a significant change as a minor edit is considered bad behavior, especially when it involves the deletion of some text. If you accidentally mark an edit as minor, you should edit the source once more, mark it major (or, rather, ensure that the check-box for "This is a minor edit" is not checked), and, in the summary, state that the previous change was a major one.

## Wiki markup

The wiki markup is the syntax system you can use to format a Wikipedia page.

In the left column of the table below; you can see what effects are possible. In the right column, you can see how those effects were achieved. In other words, to make text look like it looks in the left column, type it in the format you see in the right column.

You may want to keep this page open in a separate browser window for reference. If you want to try out things without danger of doing any harm, you can do so in the Wiki link. Try opening the Sandbox in a separate window or tab and keeping this page open for reference.

### Examples

What it looks like What you type

New section

Subsection

Sub-subsection

==

); don't use first-level headings (=).
• A #Placement_of_the_Table_of_Contents_.28TOC.29 will automatically be added to an article that has four or more sections.
• If appropriate, place subsections in an appropriate order. If listing countries, place them in alphabetical order rather than, say, relative to population of OECD countries, or some random order.

==New section==
===Subsection===
====Sub-subsection====



A single newlinegenerally has no effect on the layout.These can be used to separatesentences within a paragraph.Some editors find that this aids editingand improves the function diff(used internally to comparedifferent versions of a page).

But an empty linestarts a new paragraph.

• When used in a list, a newline does affect the layout (#lists).

A single [[newline]]
generally has no effect on the layout.
These can be used to separate
sentences within a paragraph.
Some editors find that this aids editing
and improves the function ''diff''
(used internally to compare
different versions of a page).

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.



You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.

• Close markup between lines, do not start a link or italics or bold on one line and close it on the next.

You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.



• It's easy to create a list:
• Start every line with a star (asterisk).
• More stars means deeper levels.
• A newline in a list
marks the end of a list item.
• An empty line starts a new list.

* It's easy to create a list:
** Start every line with a star.
*** More stars means deeper levels.
**** A newline in a list
marks the end of a list item.

* An empty line starts a new list.



1. Numbered lists are also good
1. very organized
2. easy to follow
1. easier still

# Numbered lists are also good
## very organized
## easy to follow
### easier still



Definition list : list of definitions
item : the item's definition
another item
the other item's definition
• Begin with a semicolon. One item per line; a newline can appear before the colon, but using a space before the colon improves parsing.

; Definition list : list of definitions
; item : the item's definition
; another item
: the other item's definition



• You can even create mixed lists
1. and nest them
• like this
• can I mix definition list as well?
• : yes
• how?
• : it's easy as
• a
• b
• c

* You can even create mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* like this
*#*; can I mix definition list as well?
*#*: yes
*#*; how?
*#*: it's easy as
*#*:* a
*#*:* b
*#*:* c



A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
• This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on Wiki links.

: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.



When there is a need for separating a block of text

The blockquote command will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.
This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text.


The '''blockquote''' command will indent
both margins when needed instead of the
left margin only as the colon does.



(See formula on right):

• This is useful for:
• pasting preformatted text;
• algorithm descriptions;
• program source code;
• ASCII_art;
• chemical structures;
• WARNING: If you make it wide, you page_widening and hence less readable, especially for people who use lower resolutions. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.

 IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines will not wrap;
END IF



Centered text.
• Please note the American spelling of "center".

Centered text.



A horizontal_dividing_line:this is above it

and this is below it.
• Mainly useful for
• disambiguation - but to be used sparsely, only when separating completely different, unrelated (groups of) meanings
• separating threads on Talk pages.

A [[horizontal dividing line]]:
this is above it
----
and this is below it.



What it looks like What you type

London has public_transport.

• A link to another Wikipedia article.
• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link above is to the URL en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Wiki link.

London has [[public transport]].



San Francisco also haspublic_transport.

• Same target, different name.
• The "piped" text must be placed first, the text that will be displayed, second.

San Francisco also has
[[public transport|
public transportation]].



San Francisco also haspublic_transportation.

Examples include buses, taxis,and streetcars.

• Endings are blended into the link.
• Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.

San Francisco also has
[[public transport]]ation.

Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxi]]s,
and [[streetcar]]s.



See the [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].



Economics#See_also is a linkto a section within another page.

#example is a link to ananchor that was created using

an id attribute
• The part after the number sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the top of the page.
• Identifiers may be created by attaching an id="..."> attribute to almost any HTML element. This doesn't work with legacy browsers.

[[Economics#See also]] is a link
to a section within another page.

to another section on the current page.

[[#example]] is a link to an
anchor that was created using
an id attribute



Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:kingdom_(biology).

• The server fills in the part after the pipe character (|) when you save the page. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When Wiki linking your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page (#link-to-section).

Automatically hide stuff
in parentheses:
[[kingdom (biology)|]].

Automatically hide namespace:
[[Wikipedia:Village Pump|]].

Or both:
[[Wikipedia:

But not:
[[Wikipedia:



Viniculture_in_London is a pagethat does not exist yet.

• You can create it by clicking on the link (but please do not do so with this particular link).
• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
5. Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.

[[Viniculture in London]]
is a page
that does not exist yet.



• Self_links appear as bold text when the article is viewed.
• Do not use this technique to make the article name bold in the first paragraph; see the Wiki link.

[[Wikipedia:
How to edit a page]]



Brockert
or four to add user name plus date/time:
Brockert 00:18, Nov 19, 2004 (UTC)
Five tildes gives the date/time alone:
00:18, Nov 19, 2004 (UTC)

When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it by adding
: ~~~
or four for user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
Five tildes gives the date/time alone:
: ~~~~~



• Wiki link one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "[[USA]]").
• Note that, while it is possible to link to a section, it is not possible to redirect to a section. For example, "#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]" will redirect to the United_States page, but not to any particular section on it. This feature may be implemented in the future - see 218 (it appears as a bug).

#REDIRECT [[United States]]



• Link to a page on the same subject in another language by using a link of the form:
[[language code:Title]]

.
• It does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.

[[fr:Wikipédia:Aide]]



'''What links here''' and
'''Related changes'''
and



A user's '''Contributions''' page
or
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]



• To put an article in a Wiki link, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, it does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.

[[Category:Character sets]]



• To link to a Wiki link page without putting the article into the category, use an initial colon (:) in the link.

[[:Category:Character sets]]



Three ways to link to external (non-wiki) sources:

1. Bare URL: http://www.nupedia.com/ (bad style)
2. Unnamed link: [1] (only used within article body for footnotes)
See Interwiki_map for the list of shortcuts.
• Square brackets indicate an external link. Note the use of a space (not a pipe) to separate the URL from the link text in the "named" version.
• In the URL, all symbols must be among:
A-Z a-z 0-9 . _ \ / ~ % - + # ? ! = ( ) @
• If a URL contains a character not in this list, it should be encoded by using a percent sign (%) followed by the hexadecimal code of the character, which can be found in the table of ASCII#ASCII_printable_characters. For example, the caret character (^) would be encoded in a URL as %5E.
• If the "named" version contains a closing square bracket "]", then you must use the HTML special character syntax, i.e. #93; otherwise the MediaWiki software will prematurely interpret this as the end of the external link.
• There is a class that can be used to remove the arrow image from the external link. It is used in Ref to stop the URL from expanding during printing. It should never be used in the main body of an article. However, there is an exception: wikilinks in Image markup. An example of the markup is as follows:
• Markup:

[http://www.sysinternals.com/
ntw2k/freeware/winobj.shtml WinObj]

• Display:
• See Wiki link for style issues.

Three ways to link to
external (non-wiki) sources:
# Bare URL:
http://www.nupedia.com/
[http://www.nupedia.com/]
(only used within article
body for footnotes)
[http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]



Linking to other wikis:
[[Wiktionary:Hello]]
[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]
[[Wiktionary:Hello|Wiktionary definition of 'Hello']]

language's wiktionary:
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]



ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

• Link to books using their Wiki link. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended.
• ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X



Text mentioning RFC 4321 anywhere

Text mentioning RFC 4321 anywhere



Date formats:

• Link dates in one of the above formats, so that everyone can set their own display order. If Special link, you can use Special link to change your own date display setting.
• All of the above dates will appear as "[[20 July|20 July]] [[1969|1969]]" if you set your date display preference to "15 January 2001", but as "[[20 July|July 20]], [[1969|1969]]" if you set it to "January 15, 2001", or as "[[1969|1969]]-[[July 20|07-20]]" if you set it to "2001-01-15".

Date formats:
# [[July 20]], [[1969]]
# [[20 July]] [[1969]]
# [[1969]]-[[07-20]]
# [[1969-07-20]]



Special AO links like As_of_2006needing future maintenance

Special [[WP:AO]] links like [[As of 2006|this year]]
needing future maintenance



• To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, #Images.

[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]



### Images

Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the Special link. You can find the uploaded image on the Special link.

What it looks like What you type

A picture:

A picture: [[Image:wiki.png]]


With alternative text:

With alternative text:[[Image:wiki.png|jigsaw globe]]

• Alternative text, used when a mouse hovers over the image or when the image is not loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Wiki link for help on choosing it.

Floating to the right side of the page and with a caption:

Floating to the right side of the pageand with a caption:[[Image:wiki.png|frame|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]

• The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
• The caption is also used as alternate text.

Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:

Floating to the right side of the pagewithout a caption:[[Image:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]

• The help topic on Interlanguage link explains more options.

Linking directly to the description page of an image:

Linking directly to the description pageof an image:[[:Image:wiki.png]]

• Clicking on an image displayed on a page
(such as any of the ones above)also leads to the description page

Linking directly to an image without displaying it:wiki.png

Linking directly to an imagewithout displaying it:[[media:wiki.png|Image of the jigsaw globe logo]]


Using the div tag to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text):

Example:

Place images here


Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers):

Example: {| align=right
|-
|
Place images here
|}



See the Wikipedia's Wiki link as a guideline used on Wikipedia.

For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the topic on Interlanguage link.

### Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Emphasized text
Strong emphasis
Even stronger emphasis

''Emphasized text''
'''Strong emphasis'''
'''''Even stronger emphasis'''''



A typewriter font for monospace textor for computer code: codeint main()/code

• For semantic reasons, using code where applicable is preferable to using tt.

A typewriter font for monospace text
or for computer code: int main()



You can use small text for captions.

You can use small text for captions.



Better stay away from big text, unless it's within small text.

Better stay away from big text, unless
it's within small text.



You can strike out deleted materialand underline new material.

You can also mark deleted material andinserted material using logical markup.For backwards compatibility better combine thispotentially ignored new logical withthe old physical markup.

• When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
• When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.

You can strike out deleted material
and underline new material.

You can also mark deleted material and
inserted material using logical markup.
For backwards compatibility better combine this
potentially ignored new logical with
the old physical markup.



Suppressing interpretation of markup:

Link → (''to'') the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]

• Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
• Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
• Does not escape HTML character references.
• To escape HTML character references such as rarr; use amp;rarr;

<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'')
the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]</nowiki>



Commenting page source:
not shown when viewing page

• Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
• Note that most comments should go on the appropriate Wiki link.

<!-- comment here -->



Diacritical marks:
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì ÍÎ Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô ÕÖ Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ßà á
â ã ä å æç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
õö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;



Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶

« »

&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;



Commercial symbols:
£ ¤

&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;



Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

0 =8.85 10−12C² / J m.

x1 x2 x3 or

x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;

x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;



x1 x2 x3 or

x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;

x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

&epsilon;0 =
8.85 &times; 10&minus;12
C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]



Greek characters:

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;



Mathematical characters:

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &harr;



$\sin x + \ln y$sinx + lny

$\mathbf\left\{x\right\} = 0$x = 0

Ordinary text should use #emph, and should not use i or b. However, mathematical formulas often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Complex formulas should use Formula, and simple formulas may use math; or i and b; or

''

and ''' . According to Wiki link, wiki markup is preferred over HTML markup like i and b.

$\sin x + \ln y$
sin''x'' + ln''y''

$\mathbf\left\{x\right\} = 0$
'''x''' = 0



Spacing in simple math formulas:
Obviously, x²0 is true when x is a real number.

• To space things out without allowing line breaks to interrupt the formula, use non-breaking spaces: nbsp;.

Obviously, ''x''&sup2;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;0 is true when ''x'' is a real number.



Complicated formulas:

$\sum_\left\{n=0\right\}^\infty \frac\left\{x^n\right\}\left\{n!\right\}$
• See Formula for how to use math>.
• A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character.

: $\sum_\left\{n=0\right\}^\infty \frac\left\{x^n\right\}\left\{n!\right\}$



### No or limited formatting - showing exactly what is being typed

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki to display things as you typed them - what you see, is what you get!

style="width:8em" | What it looks like What you type

nowiki tags

The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It reformats text by removing newlines    and multiple spaces.
It still interprets special characters: →



<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It reformats text by removing newlines    and multiple spaces.
It still interprets special characters: &rarr;
</nowiki>



pre tags

The pre tag ignores Wikimarkup.It also doesn't     reformat text.It still interprets special characters:

The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters: &rarr;



Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted. It still
interprets

Wikimarkup and special
characters: →


Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted. It still
interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and special
characters: &rarr;



At the current status of the wiki markup language, having at least four headers on a page triggers the TOC to appear in front of the first header (or after introductory sections). Putting
__TOC__

anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first header). Putting
__NOTOC__


### Tables

There are two ways to build tables:
• in special Wiki-markup (see Table)
• with the usual HTML elements: table, tr, td or th.

For the latter, and a discussion on when tables are appropriate, see Wiki link.

### Variables

Code Effect

{{CURRENTWEEK}}


{{CURRENTDOW}}


{{CURRENTMONTH}}


{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}


{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}


{{CURRENTDAY}}


{{CURRENTDAYNAME}}


{{CURRENTYEAR}}


{{CURRENTTIME}}


{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}


{{PAGENAME}}


{{NAMESPACE}}


{{REVISIONID}}


{{localurl:pagename}}


{{localurl:

Wikipedia:Sandbox
|action=edit}}


{{fullurl:pagename}}


{{fullurl:pagename|

query_string
}}


{{SERVER}}


{{ns:1}}


{{ns:2}}


{{ns:3}}


{{ns:4}}


{{ns:5}}


{{ns:6}}


{{ns:7}}


{{ns:8}}


{{ns:9}}


{{ns:10}}


{{ns:11}}


{{ns:12}}


{{ns:13}}


{{ns:14}}


{{ns:15}}


{{SITENAME}}


NUMBEROFARTICLES is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect, in other words number of articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages;CURRENTMONTHNAME is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like

{{grammar:case|word}}

to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example,
{{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}}

means the same as
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}

.

### Templates

The Wiki link software used by Wikipedia has support for templates. This means standardized text chunks (such as Wiki link text) can be inserted into articles. For example, typing will appear as "''This article is a [[Wikipedia:Stub|stub]]. You can help Wikipedia by [[Wikipedia:Stub|expanding it]].''" when the page is saved. See Wiki link for the complete list. Other commonly used templates are: for disambiguation pages, for spoiler warnings and like an article stub but for a section. There are many subject-specific stubs for example: , , and . For a complete list of stubs see WSS/ST.

Insert __NOEDITSECTION__ into the document to suppress the edit links that appear next to every section header.

You may also want to learn about:
• Starting_a_new_page
• Informal tips on Wiki link
• Rename pages boldly, at Wiki link
• Style conventions in the Wiki link
• An article with annotations pointing out common Wikipedia style and layout issues, at Wiki link
• General policies in Wiki link
• Wiki link for how to name articles themselves